Area: Senegal / Thies and Diourbel regions
Participants: Interstate school of Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Dakar (EISMV), Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke)
Intensification drivers: Genetic changes in the cattle; Rural population growth, urban growth and increasing demand for food from cities (cities, regional capitals, secondary cities), climate change, professionalization and organization of producer organizations and local authorities, improved infrastructure (main roads, telecommunications)
Report:Please download the complete Light Case Study report here.
Read more: www.luke.fi/foodafrica
Demand for milk in Sub-Saharan Africa is rising constantly and small scale dairy producers will continue to be an important part of African agriculture. Farmers in low-input dairy production systems in Senegal currently lack the needed information on the relative performance of different breed-types to be able to make informed production system or management decisions.
The particular focus of Senegal Dairy Genetics is to examine the trade-offs, in terms of both benefits and costs, of keeping indigenous breeds and crosses of these with newly introduced breeds, which produce more milk but require additional inputs. To examine these trade-offs, Senegal Dairy Genetics has established partnership with 239 dairy farming households ranging from the very traditional to the more innovative. The farms together keep more than 3500 dairy animals of numerous breed and cross-breed types. Productivity and economic information on these dairy animals is being collected over an 18 month monitoring period, resulting in an extremely valuable and unique database on dairy in Senegal. In addition, the breed-type of the animals will be determined using advanced DNA based approaches, ensuring this information is accurately known in the absence of recorded pedigree.
On completion, the data will be analysed with feedback on the benefits and costs of keeping different breeds or cross-breeds of dairy animals disseminated to a broad range of stakeholders, resulting in enhanced capacity and better decision-making on this key issue. Further, Senegal Dairy Genetics is working towards ensuring farmers can better access the dairy breed-types of their choice, by building the capacity of local stakeholders to strengthen the dairy germplasm supply system.
Depending on their cattle breeds and husbandry methods, the income difference between Senegalese dairy farming families can be as high as eight-fold. Under the FoodAfrica programme, coordinated by Luke, a unique yield monitoring programme was conducted,and is now being expanded to dairy farms in collaboration with a local counselling organisation.
Mame Diarra, Senegalese veterinarian, jumps down from a horse-drawn wagon in a manner which attests long experience, walking to greet the housewife who is preparing breakfast. The breakfast does not include dairy products – In Senegal, coffee is mostly mixed with milk powder, even if the family in question produces milk.
Assane Gueye, who keeps dairy cows on his farm, is raking hay for his cows. He tells Mame Diarra that he is annoyed for his cows not yielding more milk although he feeds them with high-quality hay. It should be noted that access to high-quality hay is not self-evident in the semi-arid climate of the Sahel.
Eight-fold difference in income from dairy farming
In Senegal, the westernmost country of Africa, milk production is extremely low, with the country in practice depending on imports. The Senegalese government has made improved and increased milk production one of its priority projects.
Research data available on milk production and cattle husbandry in Senegal is also extremely scant. Under the FoodAfrica programme, coordinated by the Natural Resources Institute of Finland (Luke), the first monitoring study of its kind on milk yield has been carried out, seeking to shed light on the effect of different cattle breeds and husbandry methods on milk production.
Depending on their cattle breeds and husbandry methods, the income difference between milk producers may be as high as eight-fold.
“The results are clear-cut. Following investments in dairy cattle husbandry, the net yield of dairy cattle husbandry will show a surprisingly clear growth rate, irrespective of the cattle breed. The yield also exhibits clear differences between different cattle breeds,” comments Miika Tapio, Principal Research Scientist at Luke.
Local cattle breeds are most popular
The study monitored a total of 220 milk producers for a duration of 20 months between 2013 and 2015 in the regions of Thiès and Diourbel, located in Central and West Senegal. On average, the producers had 20 to 22 cattle in their herds, of which approximately one half consists of cows. Depending on the breed, the daily milk yield varied from 1.5 to 7 litres.
While an overwhelming majority of the cattle comprised local breeds, the sample also included individual animals from improved breeds. One of the objectives of the FoodAfrica programme was to ascertain the kinds of breeds that cattle farmers in general keep.
“While Senegal has a bustling livestock market, not even the animal’s previous owner may have correct information on its background. Through a genetic analysis, the various breed and crossbreed type were unveiled, and comparisons between their impact could be made,” Miika Tapio says.
Comparisons were made between four different cattle breeds, including their hybrids: African humpback cattle; African humpless cattle; an improved humpless Western breed; and an improved humpback cattle breed originating in South America or Asia.
Producers were enthusiastically involved
In Senegal, traditional nomadism is still very much in evidence, particularly in the countryside. The cattle farmers studied under the FoodAfrican programme owned more steadfast farms on the outskirts of large cities, despite fact that their background in many cases was in nomadism.
Dairy farmers participated enthusiastically in the study, something that the researchers found highly gratifying.
“It is unusual that all research subjects remain in the study for its entire length. However, this was the first time that an expert visited farms on a monthly basis, talking with the producers and providing them with some form of support. Initially, farmers were not provided with advice with a direct impact on the yield, but, later, they were instructed, among other things, in the preservation of feed,” Miika Tapio comments.
However, the results of the study were so conclusive that many producers adopted new practices from them, applying them to their own cattle husbandry.
“When interviewed, the producers told us that breeds with a high yield also consume a great deal of feed. At first, the producers were critical about this. Now, we were able to measure the difference between the various breeds and husbandry methods, including the advantages brought about by investments. They now have an objective foundation for making decisions at the level of their own farms,” Miika Tapio says.
During the follow-up phase of the FoodAfrica programme, information will be distributed to produces in collaboration with ANCAR, a local counselling organisation. A total of 15 training sessions has been scheduled, distributed across a two-year period.
Following such sessions, morning coffee in Senegal may be more frequently mixed with fresh milk, not just with milk powder.
Research in Senegal is coordinated by International Livestock Research Insitute (ILRI). Other partners include Institut Sénégalais de Recherche Agricole (ISRA), Ecole Inter Etats des Sciences et Médecine Vétérinaires de Dakar, Luke, and the University of Helsinki.
Text: Niina Pitkänen/Luke